Group Meeting Photo

Covers of

PHOSFUN group papers

PHOSFUN: Phosphorene functionalization: a new platform for advanced multifunctional materials

2D materials have attracted a great deal of interest due to their variety of applications. Since its discovery in 2004, graphene has monopolized the attention given the unparalleled combination of outperforming structural and functional properties which pave the way for a plethora of different applications. Though its applicability in micro- and nanoelectronic has been later demonstrated to be strongly limited due to its inherent lack of a band gap. This limitation could be overcome using phosphorene, a recently discovered 2D sheet formed by phosphorus atoms prepared by exfoliation of black phosphorus and endowed with a natural band gap. Up to now, only theoretical and basic research has been carried out without the demonstration of reliable and reproducible implementation into real electronic devices.

The PHOSFUN proposal focuses the unexplored chemical reactivity of phosphorene and gathers together chemists mastering the chemistry of phosphorus with physicists expert in advanced nanostructured systems. First, we aim to set-up a scalable and reproducible synthesis of mono and multilayer phosphorene. Then the functionalization of phosphorene with organic and inorganic moieties will be carried out. Doping the phosphorene will provide new functionalized heterostructured 2D sheets. The functionality of the innovative advanced 2D materials will be validated by implanting phosphorene derivatives into different device platforms addressed to applications in material science, catalysis, microelectronics and optoelectronic devices.

The final aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a chain-of-value based on phosphorene platform from synthesis to device realization and implementation. Our results will give an overview on how the chemical and physical properties of phosphorene may be modulated. This will expand enormously the fundamental knowledge on phosphorus-based materials and will open the way to novel applications in different areas.

Project PHOSFUN “Phosphorene functionalization: a new plat-form for advanced multifunctional materials” is funded by European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant Agreement No. 670173)



Principal Investigator

  • Maurizio Peruzzini (CNR-ICCOM)

Senior Researcher

  • Maria Caporali (CNR-ICCOM)
  • Matteo Ceppatelli (CNR-ICCOM)
  • Francesca Cicogna (CNR-ICCOM)
  • Serena Coiai (CNR-ICCOM)
  • Andrea Ienco (CNR-ICCOM)
  • Stefan Heun (CNR-NANO)
  • Werner Oberhauser (CNR-ICCOM)
  • Elisa Passaglia (CNR-ICCOM)
  • Stefano Toffanin (CNR-ISMN)


  • Gabriele Manca (CNR-ICCOM)
  • Manuel Serrano Ruiz (CNR-ICCOM)


  • Margherita Bolognesi (CNR-ISMN)
  • Demetrio Scelta (CNR-ICCOM)
  • Francesca Telesio (CNR-NANO)

PhD Students

  • Iñigo Iglesias Benito (CNR-ICCOM)
  • Matteo Vanni (CNR-ICCOM)




Margherita Bolognesi, Salvatore Moschetto, Mariachiara Trapani, Federico Prescimone, Claudia Ferroni, Gabriele Manca, Andrea Ienco, Silvia Borsacchi, Maria Caporali, Michele Muccini, Maurizio Peruzzini, Manuel Serrano-Ruiz, Lucia Calucci, Maria Angela Castriciano, Stefano Toffanin Noncovalent Functionalization of 2D Black Phosphorus with Fluorescent Boronic Derivatives of Pyrene for Probing and Modulating the Interaction with Molecular Oxygen ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019 DOI:10.1021/acsami.9b04344

Kumar, A.; Telesio, F.; Forti, S.; Al-Temimy, A.; Coletti, C.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Caporali, M.; Peruzzini, M.; Beltram, F.; Heun, S. STM study of exfoliated few layer black phosphorus annealed in ultrahigh vacuum 2D Materials 2019, 6, DOI: 10.1088/2053-1583

Peruzzini, M.; Bini, R.; Bolognesi, M.; Caporali, M.; Ceppatelli, M.; Cicogna, F.; Coiai, S.; Heun, S.; Ienco, A.; Benito, I.; Kumar, A.; Manca, G.; Passaglia, E.; Scelta, D.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Telesio, F.; Toffanin, S.; Vanni, M. A Perspective on Recent Advances in Phosphorene Functionalization and Its Applications in Devices European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 2019, 2019, 1476–1494 DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201801219


Dickerson, W.; Tayari, V.; Fakih, I.; Korinek, A.; Caporali, M.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Peruzzini, M.; Heun, S.; Botton, G.; Szkopek, T. Phosphorus oxide gate dielectric for black phosphorus field effect transistors Applied Physics Letters 2018, 112, DOI:10.1063/1.5011424

Ienco, A.; Manca, G.; Peruzzini, M.; Mealli, C. Modelling strategies for the covalent functionalization of 2D phosphorene Dalton Transactions 2018, 47, 17243–17256 DOI:10.1039/C8DT03628D

Mealli, C.; Ienco, A.; Peruzzini, M.; Manca, G. The atomic level mechanism of white phosphorous demolition by di-iodine Dalton Transactions 2018, 47, 394–408 DOI: 10.1039/C7DT04034B

Passaglia, E.; Cicogna, F.; Costantino, F.; Coiai, S.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Borsacchi, S.; Geppi, M.; Telesio, F.; Heun, S.; Ienco, A.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Peruzzini, M. Polymer-Based Black Phosphorus (bP) Hybrid Materials by in Situ Radical Polymerization: An Effective Tool to Exfoliate bP and Stabilize bP Nanoflakes Chemistry of Materials 2018, 30, 2036–2048 DOI:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b05298

Scelta, D.; Ceppatelli, M.; Ballerini, R.; Hajeb, A.; Peruzzini, M.; Bini, R. Spray-loading: A cryogenic deposition method for diamond anvil cell Review of Scientific Instruments 2018, 89, DOI:10.1063/1.5011286

Scelta, D.; Baldassarre, A.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Dziubek, K.; Cairns, A.; Peruzzini, M.; Bini, R.; Ceppatelli, M. The p-sc structure in phosphorus: Bringing order to the high pressure phases of group 15 elements Chemical Communications 2018, 54, 10554–10557 DOI:

Telesio, F.; Passaglia, E.; Cicogna, F.; Costantino, F.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Peruzzini, M.; Heun, S. Hybrid nanocomposites of 2D black phosphorus nanosheets encapsulated in PMMA polymer material: New platforms for advanced device fabrication Nanotechnology 2018, 29, DOI:10.1088/1361-6528


Caporali, M.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Telesio, F.; Heun, S.; Nicotra, G.; Spinella, C.; Peruzzini, M. Decoration of exfoliated black phosphorus with nickel nanoparticles and its application in catalysis Chemical Communications 2017, 53, 10946–10949 DOI:C7CC05906J

Scelta, D.; Baldassarre, A.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Dziubek, K.; Cairns, A.; Peruzzini, M.; Bini, R.; Ceppatelli, M. Interlayer Bond Formation in Black Phosphorus at High Pressure Angewandte Chemie - International Edition 2017, 56, 14135–14140 DOI:10.1002/anie.201708368


Hemsworth, N.; Tayari, V.; Telesio, F.; Xiang, S.; Roddaro, S.; Caporali, M.; Ienco, A.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Peruzzini, M.; Gervais, G.; Szkopek, T.; Heun, S. Dephasing in strongly anisotropic black phosphorus Physical Review B 2016, 94, DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.94.245404

Kriegel, I.; Toffanin, S.; Scotognella, F. Black phosphorus-based one-dimensional photonic crystals and microcavities Applied Optics 2016, 55, 9288–9292 Passaglia, E.; Cicogna, F.; Lorenzetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Caporali, M.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Ienco, A.; Peruzzini, M. Novel polystyrene-based nanocomposites by phosphorene dispersion RSC Advances 2016, 6, 53777–53783 DOI:c6ra10133j

Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Caporali, M.; Ienco, A.; Piazza, V.; Heun, S.; Peruzzini, M. The Role of Water in the Preparation and Stabilization of High-Quality Phosphorene Flakes Advanced Materials Interfaces 2016, 3, DOI:10.1002/admi.201500441